End stage renal disease (ESRD)

End stage renal disease (ESRD)

Kidney failure shows symptoms only when 90 % of renal functions fail. Hence, chronic renal failure is often called a ‘silent killer’. The kidneys gradually lose their function and reach an irreversible stage called ESRD. Thereafter, wastes and excess fluid from the body are not removed. The only treatment option is either dialysis or renal transplant.

Causes of ESRD

  • Type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Hypertension
  • Glomerulonephritis (an inflammation of the basic filtering units in the kidney)
  • Nephritis (an inflammation of the kidney tubules and surrounding structures)
  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • Kidney infection or pyelonephritis
  • Urinary tract obstruction from enlarged prostate, kidney stones or cancers


  • Fluid retention, leading to swelling of the face, arms and legs
  • High blood pressure
  • Fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema)
  • A sudden rise in potassium levels in your blood (hyperkalemia), which impairs heart function and may be life-threatening.
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Weak bones and an increased risk of bone fractures
  • Anaemia
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Seizures
  • Increased vulnerability to infections
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